This table is intended to be used as a guide only. Individual cases should be read if they are to be relied upon.
Standard non-parole period (offences on or after 1.2.2003)Where the
victim was a police officer, emergency services worker, correctional officer,
judicial officer, health worker, teacher, community worker, or other public
official, exercising public or community functions and the offence arose because
of the victim’s occupation or voluntary work: 25 years
Where the victim was a child under 18 years of age: 25 years
Other cases: 20 years
6 x murder
Rob with wounding
Wound W/I to do GBH
steal, indecent assault, AOABH
"Granny killer" - attacks on elderly women
2 x murder
intent to kill
Shot ex-wife and boyfriend. Killing of boyfriend pre-meditated, but not that of wife.
Planned murder of de facto's ex husband and his new lover. Shot sleeping female then waited in house and shot male in head as he came through door. Poured petrol over bodies & incinerated them.
2 x Murder
Shot mother and baby sister. - claim of mercy killing. DR rejected.
6 x Murder
Murdered 6 people after breakdown of relationship with one of victims.
Killed flatmates with hammer to head. Reason unclear - perhaps dispute over money. Threw bodies in river.
Hunt CJ at CL
3 x Murder
Shot and pushed over cliff
3 men shot, siege followed.
S shot one man and aided and abetted killing by co-offenders.
2 x Murder
violence, sexual offences
suffocated / stabbed
Suffocated wife. Stabbed new female partner 12 weeks later. Second V found in suitcase by police at A's premises during search regarding death of As wife.
7 x Murder
Detain for advant
priors of violence
2 x shot
3 x stabbed
2 x strangled
"Backpacker murders". Dec 1989 - April 1992. Savage attacks, with degree of sexual assault.
V1 - stabbed
V2 & V3 - shot
Killed or arranged killing of male acquaintance and his parents. First killing spontaneous and motive unclear. Killing of parents premeditated and probably related to financial dealings. Premeditated.
 NSWCCA 96
 HCA 4
4 x Murder
Cut throat of wife, 6y daughter and 3m twins - left them in bedroom - deliberate killings involving considerable degree of planning.
(1996) 89 A Crim R 81
MT 13y 6m
AT 4y 6m
Shooting during drug transaction.
bow & arrow
Shot V with bow & arrow after alleged homosexual advance. Cut up body and threw in river. Second murder of taxi driver by stabbing.
 NSWCCA 327
5 x murder
5 gangland murders. Facts not stated.
 NSWSC 1153
 NSWCCA 55
offence breached AVO
Korean - stabbed wife during argument over immigration papers. Cut step daughter's throat. Culmination of arguments.
(2000) 110 A Crim R 271
3 x murder
assaulted with heavy weapons
Killed mother, sister and brother in home. No motive for killings.
 NSWSC 287
 NSWCCA 464
 NSWSC 1240
Greg James J
(2005) 153 A Crim R 288
1 x attempt murder
Convictions quashed and matter returned to trial
Shooting of four members of Bandido Outlaw Bikie Club by member and ex-member of Rebel Club in basement of cafe. Shootings carried out at close range. On retrial judge concluded deliberate executions although unable to determine if pre-planned.
G: father to young child; good character evidence from friends and family. Concurrent sentence for contempt - refused to answer question in cross-examination.
H: father to young daughter; held positions of responsibility in gaol
 NSWSC 259
 NSWCCA 128
2 x mal discharge firearm w/i to do GBH
prior convictions for weapons offences - offence committed while on bond
Angered by argument with neighbours shot two men working in nearby unit, killing one and injuring another. Shot dead third man come to investigate noise then stalked and shot victim's wife.
Not affected by alcohol or drugs, history of anger and violence - personality disorder, some prospects of rehabilitation.
(2000) 111 A Crim R 415
(2000) 121 A Crim R 342
1 x AR
Strangled male suffering effects of stroke in own home. Later strangled intellectually disabled woman he befriended in her home. Finally strangled male neighbour and disposed of body in country. Second and third killings motivated by desire to kill.
 NSWCCA 448
shooting and stabbing
Participated in joint criminal enterprise with Rose in killing of de facto and her business employee - victims killed by Rose inside business premises - premises set on fire - contract killing.
 NSWCCA 203
 NSWCCA 142
NPP 19y 6m
Suffocated wife and two infant children and dumped bodies in bushland. Highly charged emotional state at time of killing.
Some remorse; admissions shortened trial; protective custody
 NSWSC 1024
baseball bat and gun
Killing of two men in relation to drug dealing. Took victims to nearby sand hills and burnt bodies. Both murders planned and premeditated.
No remorse of regret. Not worst case - some prospects of rehabilitation, previous good character. Father of four small children with supportive family.
 NSWSC 1220
 NSWCCA 50
assault / strangled
Bashed to death 59y male in own home then mutilated body. Random killing. Two weeks later bashed and strangled 68y male in own home and mutilated body. Nothing to mitigate killing.
Physically and verbally abused by father throughout childhood - mother left home when offender aged 3.
 NSWSC 35
NPP 15y 6m
suffocation and assault
Killed de facto and sons aged 4 years and 18 months old. Passive man who endured months of aggression and abuse at hands of dominant de facto wife. Reacted to de facto's ultimatum that he kill de facto's friend by certain date.
Genuine remorse - 10-15% discount for guilty plea - strict protection
 NSWSC 580
 NSWCCA 360
1 x Wound w/i to murder
Stabbed wife and three year old daughter to death and attempted to stab baby to death - believed he was suffering from AIDS and had infected family.
Protective custody because worked in juvenile justice system. – Retrial after successful conviction appeal.
 NSWSC 959
(2005) 157 A Crim R 238
Mal wounding with intent
Became involved in minor altercation outside hotel - stepped out of car and shot three men - no provocation - comments immediately following shooting demonstrated no remorse and continued dangerousness. Heinous nature of offence demonstrating callous and ruthless attitude to human life and level of dangerousness of offender.
No explanation in background of offender for brutal behaviour - no prospects of rehabilitation
 NSWSC 1159
(2004) 146 A Crim R 309
Father killed his 3 children aged 11w, 11m and 6y on custody visit - No explanation for killing - Incomprehensible action - no evidence of mental disorder
Insufficient weight given to A's depressive state – Sentence patterns show life not imposed in cases of parents murdering children.
 NSWSC 1234
Wood CJ at CL
6 x s.178BA(1)
relatively minor record
Killed homosexual lover by stabbing in neck - Mutilated and disposed of body - Used credit card to withdraw money - 6 months later stabbed to death new lover - Decapitated body found in bath
On both occasions badly affected by drugs - Borderline personality disorder - Infected by HIV by first partner - Manipulated by both partners - Element of provocation - Battered Woman's Syndrome - Not premeditated - All mutilation done after killing - Low risk of re-offending provided remain drug free - Significant reduction in life expectancy due to HIV and Hept C infection
 NSWSC 895
(2005) 152 A Crim R 35
 NSWCCA 371
Intentionally inflict GBH
Intent to kill
Mother killed four babies over ten years – Suffocated each child in spontaneous burst of anger – Earlier attack on second child caused blindness
Seriously psychologically damages by early neglect and physical and sexual abuse – Protective custody
On appeal: error in cumulation and overall sentence crushing – comments on public opinion
 NSWSC 53
 NSWCCA 77
Drugged daughter and 2 sons with sleeping tablets then drowned them in bath – Daughter violently struggled – Revenge against estranged wife – Genuine attempt at suicide – Premeditated and planned offences
Severely mentally disturbed at time – History of mental illness – Protective custody
 NSWSC 757
NPP 21y 6m
Shot estranged wife and new partner – element of planning
Highly disturbed state resulting from separation – Attempted suicide
 NSWSC 822
(2007) 178 A Crim R 232
Stabbing - striking and strangling one victim
Stabbed father, mother and 18y sister in their home - made it look like racially motivated attack – premeditated – tried to poison mother 10 days before murder
False alibi – no mitigation of objective seriousness of offence – no contrition – risk of dangerousness
 NSWSC 981
(2005) 154 A Crim R 69
Old firearm offence – drug offence
Shot wife and brother in law in house while preparing for bed – no premeditation – no real explanation for shooting – good relationship with both victims
 NSWCCA 4
3 x Att murder
Shooting / Stabbing / Strangulation
Entered home of victims to collect debt – Tied up adults – shot male victim – shot, stabbed and strangled female victim – Shot child in head twice – Set fire to house to kill three children – attempt to avoid detection – Overall culpability justifies life sentence
 NSWSC 519
(2006) 167 A Crim R 295
Shooting / Assault
SNNP 20 years
Threatened and detained male friend over several hours with intent to rob – Subsequently shot dead friend's son and daughter - tortured and bashed to death friend's wife - careful planning
Some degree of mental illness although not mitigating criminality
 NSWSC 910
Female - Killed elderly parents during argument – Hid bodies under house – Spontaneous offence
Schizophrenia and alcoholism - Remorse
 NSWSC 1354
(combined assistance 30%)
Killed adoptive parents for financial reasons – Planned killing with co-offender – victims sedated in own home and smothered – bodies placed in car crash scene – co-offender killed mother – assisted in killing of father
Early staged of mental illness at time of offences – influenced by drugs and co-offender – favourable prospects of rehabilitation
 NSWSC 1167
 NSWCCA 62
Mal discharge firearm W/I
Shoot W/I to murder
2 x Life
Relatively minor – breached bond
Relatively minor – Breached bond
SNPP 20 years
Ongoing dispute between two families originally over drug business – ongoing violence
June 2001 – D entered bedroom with co-offender - fired five shots at male – intent to kneecap not kill – serious injuries
July 2003 – D and co-offender fired 55 round from SKS semi-automatic rifles at house after luring out occupants – no one injured
Aug 2003 – D, E and A fired at second house using SKS rifles and pistols – O driver – sleeping female and male killed
El-Zeyat and Aouad
Sentenced for third murder – conviction appeal allowed  NSWCCA 61 – new trial not proceed with
 NSWSC 274
 NSWCCA 86
Tied up and strangled retired couple in their own home – trusted handyman – Stole money from bank accounts – financial difficulties – well planned offence
 NSWSC 1294
2 x Sp agg kidnapping
NPP 12y 6m
NPP 16y 6m
Suffocation / Strangling
Joint criminal enterprise
Assisted two co-offenders in detainment and murder of husband and wife – victims lured to house, assaulted and hog-tied – female suffocated by female co-offender and male strangled by male co-offender – assisted in disposing of bodies and car – principal in second degree
Voluntarily surrendered to police - Assistance to authorities – brain damage and psychological problems resulting from motor cycle accident
Third co-offender, Flentjar, sentenced only for kidnapping offences
 NSWSC 502
 NSWCCA 173
 NSWSC 1102
Life – conviction and sentence quashed
New sentence by Hidden J:-
Conviction quashed. New trial ordered.
Minor – but did admit in undercover operation to undetected criminal misconduct
Contract killing with victim's adopted son – Son sedated parents with drugs in tea – Offender entered house and suffocated both victims within short space of time – bodies placed in car and pushed off embankment to suggest car accident – principal offender – promised $17,000
Amateurish and unprofessional killing – not satisfied as to future dangerousness
Hidden J –
evidence of schizophrenia / mental illness
 NSWCCA 132
(just over 13%)
NPP 38y 6m
NPP 35y 3m
Assaulted and stabbing
Bashed to death male neighbour – sustained attack – concerned with drug dealing – later that day based and stabbed female partner of first victim to prevent reporting to police – sustained attack – callous and brutal offences
Under influence of drugs and alcohol – relative youth
 NSWSC 905
Joint criminal enterprise / intent to kill
Female - Recruited two male friends to assist in detaining victims – Lured husband and wife to house – Victims assaulted, gagged and hogtied – male strangled – female suffocated – not established which offender committed fatal acts – bodies placed in drums, taken into forest and burned – equal involvement in post murder conduct - kidnapping well planned – murder slightly above mid-range – pivotal role
Motive unclear – model prisoner – lost contact with daughters – prospects of rehabilitation
 NSWSC 764
Assault, stabbing and drowning
SNPP 25 years
Grandfather hit wife with hammer and stabbed her to death – drowned 5y granddaughter in bath – assaulted 7y grandson with hammer then drowned in bath – bodies placed in bed – killed dog – children in care of grandparents while mother at work – lied to school about children being ill – assaulted daughter with axe when she returned to house – brain and skull injuries – planning and premeditation – no explanation for killings – murder of children worst case – murder of wife mid-range – assault on daughter well above mid range
No mental illness
 NSWSC 814
Murder of wife
Murder of Stepdaughter
Assault on first wife – strangling and threat to kill
Strangled wife during argument – verbal threats and physical assaults made previously – killing observed by 9y stepdaughter - killed step daughter to prevent her reporting killing to police – method of killing unclear – threw bodies over cliff in Blue Mountains – discovered by bushwalkers 4 weeks later – lied to police – had son assist in deception - killed wife for financial reasons
No evidence of remorse or rehabilitation
 NSWSC 562
NPP 22y 6m
Common purpose to inflict gbh
Victims stabbed during attack by four males outside bar – not known who inflicted fatal wounds – attack a response to earlier attack on first offender by one victim and friends – delay between incidents and degree of planning – mid range offences – disregard for public safety
N – judgment clouded by fear caused by earlier attack – did not stab anyone although aware of knives and armed with knife himself –reasonable prospects of rehabilitation
L – stabbed both victims
 NSWSC 1607
 NSWCCA 92
(2 x murder)
Old record – most recent offence involved neighbourhood dispute
During confrontation with neighbours shot two brothers – shot one victim twice – origin of gun unclear – not premeditated – ongoing neighbourhood dispute – mid-range offence
 NSWSC 759
Shoot w/i murder
Agg indecent assault
14 x BE
Murder V2: Life
Murder V1: 28y
Offensive language, high-range PCA.
V1: Murdered V1 (female) after V1 raised allegation that A had sexually interfered with XY – A strangled V1 then dismembered and buried V's body.
V2: Strangled V2 (female) – sexual intercourse with V2's body – had been sexually attracted to V2.
A was on the run from police for 7 years and committed a number of break and enters during this time for his survival.
Long standing low-grade depression and severe personality disorder – poor rehabilitation prospects.
 NSWSC 1027
 NSWCCA 307
11 x Murder
8 x Reck GBH
8y NPP 6y
Lit two fires in aged care nursing home where A worked as nurse – A had been stealing painkiller medication to feed his long-term drug addiction – an internal investigation revealed the medication was being stolen – A lit fires with intention of covering his theft – while fire was burning A retrieved drug log books and destroyed them – fires caused death and injuries to number of elderly victims.
Worst case category.
Personality disorder – poly substance abuse disorder.
 NSWSC 1328
RS Hulme AJ
Stabbed V former business partner numerous times – V had defrauded A – also stabbed V2 (brother of V) who lived with V and was home at the time.
Marginally above mid-range offences.
Wife Pintabona sentenced for Accessory.
 NSWSC 1510
NPP 13y 11m
Victims stabbed during attack by four males outside bar during argument – TVN inflicted one non-fatal stab wound on one victim during fight - attack a response to earlier attack on co-offender by one victim and friends – delay between incidents and degree of planning – mid range offences – disregard for public safety – under influence of 26y co-offender – offences above mid-range
Spent three years in Vietnam with father after murder – voluntarily returned – difficult childhood – evidence of rehabilitation
 NSWSC 1757
Prior record for violence offences although only bonds
Left home angry and intoxicated and armed with hunting knife – threatened and assaulted partner and several strangers with knife in attempt to obtain car – obtained two cars at knifepoint – drove to grandparents' house with intent to kill but moved on – demanded gun from female friend at knifepoint – smashed way into father's house and stabbed him repeatedly in presence of 12y half brother – pursued and stabbed father's partner multiple times in front of 7y daughter – police pursuit in car – trigger for offences unknown – previously expressed dark thoughts to mother – almost at top of objective seriousness but absence of pre-planning and prospects of rehabilitation
Harboured deep-seated anger and resentment towards family – long history of anger and impulse control – substance abuse – significant impact on children who witnessed murder – genuine remorse